Book: Douglas Murray’s The Strange Death of Europe (Review)

Early 2017 ‘The Strange Death of Europe’ was published by British author Douglas Murray. The book’s subtitle “Immigration, Identity, Islam” gives the reader an indication along which lines the author thinks this ‘strange death’ will take place. Europe’s death is literally compared to suicide, not necessarily by the will of its citizens but by the leaders having definitely chosen to go down the path of suicide.

Immigration

Murray gives a chilling recount of developments in Europe after the second World War concerning the immigration process. Although often described from the perspective of his homeland, the United Kingdom, I had little trouble applying very similar developments to the situation in the Netherlands and that probably will be the case for readers from most West European countries.

It is the story of the 1950s that saw the homecoming of repatriates from the former colonies, followed in the 1960s by the immigration of so called ‘guest workers’ because the exploding economy in Western Europe was in dire need for a cheap, unclassified workforce. The 1970s saw the start of the open door policies where the immigrants were allowed to reunite with their families in the Western European countries instead of returning to their countries of origin.

The immigration situation continued in the following decades while the governments developed new policies to justify this immigration stream, ranging from the ideals of a multicultural society where all citizens would profit from the merits of the best of different cultures, to economic arguments. Immigrants were needed to maintain economic prosperity because the population was declining because the indigenous people produced too few children to keep the social welfare state intact. Yet the population of the European countries were exposed to the less favourable aspects that came with immigration like a rise in crime figures, a population that is largely depending on reaping the benefits of the welfare state. Especially in the larger cities there has been an explosion of ghettos that urged the indigenous people to search for alternative and better places to live.

In the second decade of the 21st century it became obvious that immigration became an uncontrollable process judged by an ever increasing numbers of migrants arriving: small boats from Africa flooded the coasts of the Italian island Lampadusa with immigrants from Sub-Saharan countries. In Greece landed extremely large numbers of migration fleeing from war situations in Middle East countries like Syria and Iraq.

One of the most remarkable events from recent years was the 2015 statement of the German chancellor “Wir schaffen das”. As Germany is also the most prominent and influential EU member, her statement signalled the start of an enormous movement and influx of migrants, almost always in search for countries with the best social conditions and benefits. This meant that the migrants went from state to state before reaching their final, most sought after destinations (countries like Germany, UK, Netherlands, Sweden).

Identity

Murray shows in an unmerciful way with an abundant amount of examples that the European governments over the past 60 years have categorically denied, lied about or at least fully underestimated the effects of immigration. They manipulated their citizens about the extent of immigration and even went so far to blatantly suppress people who dared to challenge the benefits of the large influx of migrants. Murray poses questions to which no European politician ever had a answer: “when will we have enough immigrants to fulfil political (multicultural) or economical goals (additions to the workforce)?” and “why should particularly Europe carry this burden (and not for example the countries from the Arabian peninsula)?”.

After these historical and more recent developments Murray in Chapter 13 shifts his focus to find explanations for this behaviour from the European states. He comes up with a number of aspects that are foremost psychological. There is a diminishing self belief among Europeans. They have become obsessed with economic short time goals, instant gratification based on consumerism without any higher ideals. They feel the guilt of past historic events and are too tired, too weak, too disorganised to defend their social, scientific and cultural achievements. This attitude is noticeable in their efforts in the fields of art, literature and music.

Due to the immigration the indigenous people (especially the weaker social classes like elderly and the ones with lower income) feel more and more challenged and outsmarted by immigrant culture with strong family and tribal connections. The middle class finds themselves confronted with an ever increasing work load to finance the welfare state. On top of that they find themselves in a position where they only have access to loose social structures. They do not have time, ambition or resources to reproduce themselves. And in the circumstances where they do organise themselves, they are confronted strong opposition from the political and social establishment which is quick to label them with references to a darker side of Europe’s recent history.

In my opinion Murray is missing an important aspect of how and why the migration could take on to such unexpected dimensions in Europe. Migration has become a very large economical factor with more and more people depending on an income. It is like an industry where the migrant is the commodity being mangled through a chain of people and organisations, ranging from the smugglers in Africa and Turkey, the NGO’s that pick up and transport the migrants, the lawyers that defend the migrants through their procedures, the governmental organisations that accompany the migrants arranging home, study, income. And finally in the chain are the political parties that can be assured of an increasing voters base.

Islam

The third pillar of Murray’s argumentation for Europe’s suicide is based on the fact that many of the immigrants have one thing in common: they worship the Islamic faith. Islamic faith is the very opposite of modern West Europe and this leads to ever increasing social tension as the number of muslims keeps on rising.

Migrants (islamic or otherwise) never received a clear signal from the European governmental hosts what they expected from them in their new situation. And even if there was signalling there was little control and no consequences for not obeying the rules of their host.

The subordinate position of women, the aversion against homosexuality, the possibility of apostasy are some examples of Islamic belief that are profoundly conflicting with the highly secular way of life within West European countries. The line from practicing a peaceful religion to violent exposure often seems to be rather thin and blurred because of the teachings  in massadras and mosques.

Conclusion

In the final two chapters Murray sums up a positive scenario where Europe can turn the tide but even through these possible positive events the reader gets the impression that Murray does not really believe that they will be happening. The darker scenario seems more likely that ultimately will lead to a sharp confrontation among the citizens and between citizens and their politicians.

Murray’s Strange Death is worth reading because it is the ultimate synopsis of the immigration process that has happened over the past decades in Europe and the questionable role that Europe’s leaders played in dealing with this new situation.

Apple Pay evolution to the blockchain

In its current format Apple Pay is depending on traditional banking and credit card institutions. This has not proven to be a guarantee for a fast world wide roll out of the service. There are tough negotiations involved both on the side of merchants as well as the financial institutions.

For example in The Netherlands there have been talks about rolling out for more than a year. Finally next month things should be ready for ‘prime time’. I have no idea what the final ‘service’ will look like in the Netherlands. It surely will be along the lines of scanning your bank debet card(s) and credit cards (hopefully all financial institutions will be involved) in order to enable transactions. The final seal of the transaction will be made through the Touch ID of Face Recognition when iPhone X will make its way to the community. There is the challenge to attract  merchants to accept Apple Pay. Judging from the acceptance in the USA where Apple pay already is active, another possible factor that the final service will be somewhat crippled from the start.

Suppose that in the near future Apple would be skipping the financial institutions and operate as a financial intermediair supported by a decentralised public ledger (blockchain). It would look something like this.

Blockchain, currency

Apple starts the blockchain with its own currency, opening the ‘to be’ blockchain to miners processing transactions and offering financial compensation delivering the computational power for transaction processing.

Consumer

The consumers are able to buy Apple’s own currency, exchanging fiat money for the Apple Currency (which I shall name ACX for convenience reasons). This process is from a consumer perspective similar to buying something from the App Store. Only the exchanged money does not land on Apple’s bank account but on the blockchain, so Apple has a function here as an exchange institution (from fiat money to ACX). As soon as the exchange transaction is processed (all made possible through an Apple device like an iPhone, iPad with a dedicated app) the ACX balance of the consumer is updated and visible from the app.  The consumer will now be able to spend his ACX balance online or through Apple Pay at physical stores.

Transaction with merchant

The merchant who is affiliated with Apple Pay is then capable of adding balance to his Apple business account also stored on the blockchain. The transaction between consumer and merchant takes place between two Apple devices for example an iPad on the merchant side and an iPhone on the consumer side. There must be a kind of handshake between the two devices, finalized by a ID on both merchant and consumer side. The consumer will be debited for the transaction, the merchant credited. Apple will allow the merchant as well as the consumer to exchange their ACX for fiat money (USD, EUR etc.). Transaction will processed by decentralised processes on the blockchain enabling miners to receive a fee for the transaction.

Conclusion

I am sure that solutions along the lines as described above will be made available in the near future. I can imagine that Apple choses its own blockchain, it has the financial power to do so. Not only by Apple but all the major big players (Google, Facebook, Microsoft etc.) wil start offering services along these lines. I use the example of Apple because they are probably already ahead of the bunch and already have an integrated ecosystem.

The implications are far stretching: Apple becomes a financial institution itself and largely independent from the traditional banking and credit card institutions. Therefor it may decide to start a specialised branch named Apple Pay. The underlying blockchain technology will be essential to guarantee the integrity and security of the ecosystem. I also understand such a scenario will have far reaching fiscal and financial consequences which I will not address here, but in general Apple’s dedicated branch will behave very much like a traditional financial institution from a fiscal and financial perspective.

The Hague, October 21th 2017